اموزش روش های اصلاح نباتات National Plant breeding study
این متن ناقص است متن کامل را دانلود نمایید
The profession of plant breeding has changed greatly over the past quarter century. In the U.S. and many other countries, laws were written and refined that permitted the protection and/or patenting of biological materials, including plant cultivars. This practice of protection of genes, parent lines, and cultivars has led to a much more formalized protocol for interaction among plant breeders, from both the public and private employment sectors. Also, research in molecular biology has led to techniques, grouped under biotechnology, that greatly expand the array of genes available to plant breeding programs and that can make plant breeding much more precise. As a result of cultivar protection and the prospective use of biotechnology in plant breeding, there had been an immense increase in plant breeding by private companies. This evolution within the plant breeding arena raises questions about many issues. We decided to undertake a National Plant Breeding Study to be divided into several phases. Phase I involved making a comprehensive compilation of the number of Science Person Years (SY) devoted to the U.S. plant breeding industry in total, by employer category (i.e., state agricultural experiment stations-SAES, U.S. Department of Agriculture-USDA, and private industry), by plant breeding activity (i.e., basic plant breeding research-PBR, germplasm enhancement-GE, and cultivar development-CD), and by crop and crop category. Estimates of cost per plant breeding SY were obtained from stratified random samples of employers in the public and private sectors. Mean values were used to estimate the annual cost of U.S. plant breeding R&D and the input by employer category. Further, the net loss and gain of SYs were estimated for the public and private sectors over the past 5 years. This report is a compilation of the data obtained from the survey.
مواد و روش ها METHODS AND MATERIALS
A questionnaire was constructed with help from the Survey Unit of the Statistical
Laboratory at Iowa State University (see Appendix D). The questionnaire requested data, with 1994 being the base year, on numbers of SYs devoted to PBR, GE, and CD by crop from each employer (see questionnaire for definitions of SY and plant breeding activities). Also requested s whether an employer's input had changed over the 5-year period 1990-94. These data were used to estimate net gains or losses in SYs by employer category
Data on ARS/USDA input into plant breeding research and technology were obtained
from Charles Murphy of the National Program Staff/ARS. The questionnaire also was
sent to 28 USDA Plant Materials Centers (PMC) that select species and accessions of
plants for land conservation purposes. Replies were obtained from 26 PMCs.
The questionnaire was sent to 50 SAES, 2 universities not associated with the SAES,
6 experiment stations in territories administered by the U.S. government, and 17 1890s
colleges. Replies were obtained from all SAES, the 2 universities, 5 of the territorial
experiment stations, and 6 1890s colleges.
A number of address lists were used to compile a group of private companies to receive
the questionnaire. The primary data bases were the membership lists of the American
Seed Trade Association (ASTA) and the National Council of Commercial Plant Breeders
(NCCPB), company names provided by the chairs of Commodity Germplasm
Committees, and state seed trade associations. Several other small association address
lists were also used. The integrated list with more than 1,000 seed companies and
names of individuals was categorized by state, and these state lists were sent to 1 to 3
plant breeders in each SAES with requests to purge companies that were known to not
have plant breeding programs. After this iteration, the list contained 690 companies and
individuals to whom the questionnaire was sent. About 300 replies were obtained from
this mailing. Attempts were made to contact the non-responders by phone. The
questionnaire was mailed on 20 June 1996 and by 1 November when the survey was
terminated, replies had been obtained via mail or phone from 584 companies and
individuals. Of the 106 with no replies, 69 could not be contacted by mail or phone (it
is assumed that these companies and individuals are no longer in the seed business),
22 had been bought by other companies on the list (their SY data were included in
buying companies' replies), 2 refused to provide data, and 13 provided no data in spite
of verbal promises to do so. Of the 584 companies from which replies were obtained,
329 reported SY data and 255 reported having no in-house plant breeding R&D. The 15
companies that refused or did not participate in the survey equaled 2.5% of the 599
companies and individuals that are known to be in business. If this group of 15 have the
same percentage with PBR as did the group of 584 (56%), data was not obtained from
8 companies and individuals with an estimated 36 SYs.
Thus, the data obtained represents 100% of plant breeding SYs from the SAES and
USDA and an estimated 97.5% of the plant breeding SYs in private industry.
In addition to putting U.S. annual plant breeding expenditure in terms of SYs, we have
estimated an annual dollar input also. Although, we have attempted to collect SY data
from all institutions and companies that do plant breeding R&D, data on dollar costs per
SY were obtained from samples of institutions and companies. SAES were requested
to provide data on cost per plant breeding SY for several crops. A weighted mean was
obtained from these data (Table 16). The cost per plant breeding SY in ARS/USDA was
provided by a member of the National Program Staff/USDA (Table 16). Companies were
stratified according to number of SYs and 175 were asked to provide data on cost per
plant breeding SY. One hundred replied, with 2 declining to provide data. Estimates
from the remaining 98 were placed in the proper strata and mean values were computed
for the 6 strata given in Table 15.
تحقیقات پایانی PAST STUDIES
Several studies have been completed over the past 15 years to assess
(a) numbers of SYs or Full Time Equivalents (FTEs) devoted to plant breeding in the United States and
(b) changes that are occurring in planting breeding SYs or FTEs over time. None of
these is exactly comparable to our survey, but each does provide some data that are
useful for comparison purposes.
Brooks and Vest (1985) surveyed for breeding of horticultural crops in the public sector
(i.e., SAES and USDA). They received replies from all 98 institutions surveyed and the
ARS/USDA, and from these data they predicted a 13% decrease in FTEs devoted to
plant breeding of horticultural crops in the public sector from 1983 to 1990, i.e., from 179
to 156 FTEs. Collins and Phillips (1991), while conducting a survey of land-grant
universities and 1890s colleges on graduate training in plant breeding, found that the
numbers of plant breeding FTEs in these institutions for all crops were 477 and 459 in
1980 and 1989, respectively. This equated to an FTE loss of 1.8 per year during the 1980s.
James (1990) surveyed the SAES and ARS/USDA with 100% return and reported that
in 1989 the public sector supported 417 plant breeding FTEs, with 283 in the SAES and
134 in ARS. This study reported 144 FTEs in horticultural crop breeding, which was
19.6% less than the 179 FTEs that Brooks and Vest (1985) reported for 1983 and 8%
less than the 156 FTEs these authors predicted for 1989. A survey by Collins and
Phillips (1991) showed that the SAES supported 354 FTEs in breeding of forage and field
crops in 1984-85. This study projected 385 plant breeding FTEs in SAES in 1990.
Kalton and Richardson (1983) sent a survey to 175 private companies with plant
breeding programs and received replies from 160. Their data were not reported in FTEs,
but rather as numbers of BS, MS, and PhD scientists involved in plant breeding. They
found that the 160 companies employed 1,191 scientists with 41%, 23%, and 36%
holding BS, MS, and PhD degrees, respectively. About 23% (276) of these scientists
were breeding horticultural crops. Kalton et al. (1989) conducted another survey of 203
companies of which 157 replied. The number of plant breeding FTEs reported was
1,568, with 37%, 20%, and 43% holding BS, MS, and PhD degrees, respectively.
All these studies and our study were aimed at estimating the numbers of plant breeding
FTEs or SYs in the United States. No one of them subjected the public and private
sectors to the same survey or questions. Generally though, all agreed on a modest
shrinking of plant breeding in the public sector and a sizable increase in plant breeding
in the private sector.
The number of SYs devoted to plant breeding research and technology (R&D) in the
United States in 1994 was 2,241 (Tables 1 and 2), with 529 (23%) in SAES, 177 (8%)
in ARS/USDA, 1,499 (67%) in private industry plant breeding, and 36 (2%) in the PMC.
The total number of SYs in SAES, ARS/USDA, and private industry is 2,205. (Because
98% of the plant breeding SYs are employed by SAES, ARS/USDA, and private industry,
subsequent discussion will concentrate on the 2,205 SYs employed by these 3