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پاییز  95  برشما عزیزان  تبریک و تهنیت باد



میتوکندری Mitochondrion
ارسال شده توسط سیدمهدی شمس تاریخ ارسال : پنجشنبه ۱۳۸٧/۱٠/۱٢

 

 میتوکندری      Mitochondrion

 

In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.[1] These organelles range from 1–10 micrometers (μm) in size. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.[2] Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mental disorders[3] and cardiac dysfunction,[4] and may play a role in the aging process. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος or mitos, thread + χονδρίον or khondrion, granule. Their ancestry is not fully understood, but, according to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria are descended from ancient bacteria, which were engulfed by the ancestors of eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago.

Several characteristics make mitochondria unique. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria.[5][6] The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissues and species. In human, 615 distinct types of proteins were identified from cardiac mitochondria;[7] whereas in murinae (rats), 940 proteins encoded by distinct genes were reported.[8] The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.[9] Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.[10]

     

ساختار      Structure

A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.[5] The two membranes, however, have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct compartments within the mitochondrion. There is the outer mitochondrial membrane, the intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes), the inner mitochondrial membrane, the cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and the matrix

  

 غشا خارجی       Outer membrane

The outer mitochondrial membrane, which encloses the entire organelle, has a protein-to-phospholipid ratio similar to that of the eukaryotic plasma membrane (about 1:1 by weight). It contains large numbers of integral proteins called porins. These porins form channels that allow molecules 5000 Daltons or less in molecular weight to freely diffuse from one side of the membrane to the other.[5] Larger proteins can also enter the mitochondrion if a signaling sequence at their N-terminus binds to a large multisubunit protein called translocase of the outer membrane, which then actively moves them across the membrane.[11] Disruption of the outer membrane permits proteins in the intermembrane space to leak into the cytosol, leading to certain cell death.[12]

        

 فضای بین غشا    Intermembrane space

The intermembrane space is basically the space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane. Because the outer membrane is freely permeable to small molecules, the concentrations of small molecules such as ions and sugars in the intermembrane space is the same as the cytosol.[5] However, as large proteins must have a specific signaling sequence to be transported across the outer membrane, the protein composition of this space is different than the protein composition of the cytosol. One protein that is localized to the intermembrane space in this way is cytochrome c.[12

  

 غشا داخلی         Inner membrane

The inner mitochondrial membrane contains proteins with four types of functions:[5]

  1. Those that perform the redox reactions of oxidative phosphorylation
  2. ATP synthase, which generates ATP in the matrix
  3. Specific transport proteins that regulate metabolite passage into and out of the matrix
  4. Protein import machinery.

It contains more than 100 different polypeptides, and has a very high protein-to-phospholipid ratio (more than 3:1 by weight, which is about 1 protein for 15 phospholipids). The inner membrane is home to around 1/5 of the total protein in a mitochondrion.[5] In addition, the inner membrane is rich in an unusual phospholipid, cardiolipin. This phospholipid was originally discovered in beef hearts in 1942

   

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کریستا              Crista

The inner mitochondrial membrane is compartmentalized into numerous cristae, which expand the surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane, enhancing its ability to produce ATP. In typical liver mitochondria, for example, the surface area, including cristae, is about five times that of the outer membrane. Mitochondria of cells that have greater demand for ATP, such as muscle cells, contain more cristae than typical liver mitochondria

 

             

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 سازماندهی و جایگاه در سلول      Organization and distribution.

Mitochondria are found in nearly all eukaryotes. They vary in number and location according to cell type. Substantial numbers of mitochondria are in the liver, with about 1000–2000 mitochondria per cell making up 1/5th of the cell volume.[5] The mitochondria can be found nestled between myofibrils of muscle or wrapped around the sperm flagellum.[5] Often they form a complex 3D branching network inside the cell with the cytoskeleton. The association with the cytoskeleton determines mitochondrial shape, which can affect the function as well.[16] Recent evidence suggests vimentin, one of the components of the cytoskeleton, is critical to the association with the cytoskeleton

عملکرد      Function

The most prominent roles of the mitochondrion are its production of ATP and regulation of cellular metabolism.[6] The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs Cycle. However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP

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